What is Entity Component System?

Entity Component System

The Entity-Component-System (ECS) design paradigm is used to develop system architecture. This kind of design is often used in the development of gaming apps. Instead of employing inheritance, ECS uses the composition notion, which allows for more flexibility while also making it easier to identify objects in a game’s environment.

Humbaa.com explains that what is Entity Component System

As a rule, while writing programs in ECS programming, excellent performance is achieved by default.

A total of three words are used in this scheme.




Let us take a closer look at this concept:

In this lesson on the Entity-Component System, you will learn how to:

What is an Entity?

Entities are discrete objects that represent actors who perform in a virtual environment.

It does not include any real data or activity. It serves as a repository for an entity’s information.

Strut or dictionary are often used in this situation.

For example, if we are modeling the world of the video game Minecraft, all of the visible, physical ‘objects’ in the game universe, such as the game’s characters, are counted as entities.

What is a Component?

Objects are made up of Components, which are discrete pieces of behavior that may be assigned to them.

Idealistically, the name of an element should express the kind of behavior that the element will exhibit.

On the other hand, the component is completely devoid of any functionality.

They may have entities added to them, and they are reusable modules that can be reused several times.

Among other things, this component is in charge of the overall appearance, behaviour, and functionality of the programme.

Components are used to achieve anything. These components enable you to create a variety of different things by combining and customising distinct components.

What is the System?

To accomplish low-level tasks, a system will cycle over several components.

Displaying images and executing physics are examples of such functions.

They are calculating or figuring out a route. Thanks to this platform, components may be managed and serviced worldwide.

On the other hand, systems are not optional, although they may be used to keep logic and data distinct. As a data container, it aids in the management of logical components.

To accelerate your velocity, you may use Gravity (Velocity).

Adds speed to the current location.

transfers the input of a bot-controlled entity to an AI agent
Sprites may be rendered using Render (Position, Sprite).

An input controller may be used to set the input of a player-controlled creature.


The addition of additional components to a composition may cause the composition’s appearance, behaviour, or purpose to alter. Change the entity’s settings by changing its component values.

Advantage of ECS

The following are some of the benefits of utilizing ECS in programming:

Code may be written more shortly and less difficultly.

Emergent behavior that is very adaptable.

It offers a framework for the creation of 3D and virtual reality applications.

Non-technical people may script behavior using this feature.

It aids in the division of your monolithic classes into subcategories.

Refusal and compossibility are simple.

Mocking and unit testing are made simple with this solution.

In terms of difficulty, it enables you to create a virtual reality application.

At runtime, components may be substituted by mocked components.

It assists you in the development of new features.

ECS is a user-friendly approach for parallel processing and multi-threading, and it may be used in many applications.

It assists you in distinguishing between data and the functions that operate on it.

By combining reused elements with new ones, you may have more versatility when creating things.

Decoupling, encapsulation, customization, and reusability create a simple design.

Disadvantages of using ECS

There are several downsides to using ECS.

This paradigm is less well-defined than MVC.

Hard to understand and easy to misunderstand, High-quality component design requires a great deal of attention to detail.

Many small systems that alliterate on potentially enormous numbers of items are required to accomplish ECS.. Inefficient code is more likely to result as a result of this.

The average population has little to no knowledge of this pattern.

Entity Component System Example

The following is a drawing of a bunny as an example:

The dashed box that surrounds these items is important to notice. In reality, Bunny is just a container for a bunch of other things. The aggregate of any subset of an entity’s constituent components can also be defined as an entity.

A good illustration of this may be seen in the image provided. Containing the most part, it is a simple receptacle for the rabbit’s parts and components. An illustration of this would be the Carrot entity, which is defined as a grouping of components.

Data flow in ECS:

The ECS model describes the transition from one state to the next in terms of system behaviour.

To better understand, consider the following scenario:

Gravity causes a bunny to fall from a tree.

How to Implement the above behavior?

If you have a z larger value than 0, you can gradually reduce it to 0.

“Ageing is a natural part of life.”

See if you can put this into practice.

Living Components can be given an age value that rises with time.


An architectural pattern known as Entity-Component-System (ECS) is used.

Entities are separate objects in a simulated environment that represent an individual actor.

There are several ways to describe a Component.

Low-level operations such as generating visuals, conducting physics calculations, or pathfinding will be iterated by numerous components of a system

An element to which other components may be attached in order to enhance look, behavior, or usefulness is referred to as a “composition.”

Code that follows the ECS pattern tends to be more concise and easier to understand.

It lacks the clarity of other designs like MVC in its definition.

A switch is made in the ECS model that alters the system’s behaviour.